The core resource includes embedded case study examples from the Nepal earthquakes of , also drawing on examples from the earthquake in Haiti in , giving a range of perspectives on the humanitarian impact of earthquakes. Fresh source material and case study content is now available on the Central Italy earthquake of These case studies can be used as part of compare and contrast activities.
PDF 8MB. PDF 1MB. About the author. With over 20 years teaching Geography to A level and winning awards for innovation and excellence, Alan previously worked for the Geographical Association as secondary curriculum development leader. Build resilience. The Pillowcase Project. Thanks for your feedback.
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Partner Case Studies CFE-DM partners with various academic institutions, humanitarian organizations, and service academies for various research and information sharing initiatives. Other Studies While making every attempt to ensure the information is relevant and accurate, Center for Excellence in Disaster Management and Humanitarian Assistance does not guarantee or warrant the accuracy, reliability, completeness or currency of the information in the case studies listed below. Indo-Pacific Command perspective.
Indo-Pacific Command Perspective. A review of Operation Unified Response, the U. Best Practices Pamphlets. Foundations and private groups can contribute to these efforts. Protection of natural resources. Particularly valuable natural resources such as endangered species of wildlife, fish, and plants should be identified in mitigation plans and protection measures included in disaster response plans.
Such natural resources are found not only in the wild, but in zoos and parks as well. Mitigation plans might include particular attention to the location and design of facilities so that a fire or windstorm does not act as a conduit for unexpected damage to important natural resources. For example, pipelines and power lines frequently traverse important natural resources areas. In such cases, it is possible to anticipate probable damage to adjacent natural resources caused by rupture of a pipeline or a broken power line.
Automatic flow controls, special breakers, and other features are readily available and can dramatically reduce damage. For particularly valuable and endangered populations of wildlife and plants, prudent planning might include relocating a portion of the population so that a natural event does not result in the loss of the entire population. Government leadership of mitigation implementation. Government at all levels should set an example by requiring that new facilities that it funds, regulates, or leases be designed, built, and located in accordance with modern building codes and sound.
Whether sparked by lightning or by powerlines downed in a storm, the path of forest fires is unpredictable, leaving behind a stark landscape, here including the blackened remains of a chimney and cement foundations of a cabin. On the national level, in January , the President issued an executive order requiring that federal agencies design and construct all new buildings to be earthquake resistant. Similar directives, supported by active enforcement programs, are needed at the state and local levels, and they should encompass all relevant natural hazards.
Natural Disaster Case Studies – Institute of STEM Education
Such standards should be considered for all publicly funded infrastructures and lifelines such as highways and bridges. As resources permit, the requirements should be extended to existing buildings in a phased program that reflects their vulnerability. Mitigation training. Training programs that focus on contemporary challenges associated with implementing mitigation should be developed and offered. A national training program, supported by the federal government and fully integrated with the preparedness training proposed here, should be developed for this purpose. Its curriculum would include land-use planning, zoning, building codes and regulations, tax incentives, and nonstructural mitigation measures.
Case studies from throughout the nation and around the world should be included. Mitigation training should be highly interactive, reflecting real problems and issues. For example, how can hazard and risk data be used to promote mitigation at the community level? How can hazardprone land be used in ways that are important to communities but less vulnerable to natural disasters? How can a local emergency manager or other official develop a cost-effective mitigation program?
Gridding the risks of natural disasters
How can mitigation policy and practice be moved up on the political agenda? How can local commitment to hazard reduction be developed?
How can historic structures be cost-effectively protected to avoid expensive salvage attempts following a disaster? These and other issues need to be addressed in a nationwide training program. Hazard-specific research. Recent disasters have demonstrated the benefits of mitigation efforts while pointing out the need for research to improve mitigation practice. Although all hazards would benefit from such study, research agendas for earthquakes, landslides, and extreme winds are illustrated below.
Earthquakes: There is a need to complete a national seismic monitoring network and establish a cooperative international program in strong-motion measurement and data analysis. Local networks should be established, as needed, to determine the effects of local site conditions on ground motion and the relationship between specific ground motion parameters and the degree of structural damage.https://patarete.tk
The behavior of structures founded on different soil types is another area of research opportunity. The damage distribution in the Marina District during the Loma Prieta earthquake dramatized the effects of soil properties on structures and underscores the need for additional research in this area. Research is needed to develop cost-effective methods for strengthening existing buildings and structures, especially unreinforced masonry and brittle reinforced-concrete buildings. Federal and state governments should encourage the development and implementation of active and passive control systems and other new techniques to improve the seismic resistance of both existing and new buildings.
Additional research should be conducted to improve techniques for controlling damage to nonstructural elements such as ceilings, windows, the electrical supply, and domestic gas pipes. Research to improve the design and construction of lifeline systems should be accelerated. Better understanding of the conditions that generate landslides would significantly improve hazard and risk assessments by local jurisdictions. Research is needed to develop designs that mitigate ground deformation and damage to structures, provide a technical base for mitigation measures such as landslide zoning, and test and evaluate innovative landslide stabilization techniques.
The application of new techniques in satellite remote sensing, geophysics, and geotechnical engineering for delineating landslide hazard areas should be accelerated. Research is needed to identify the economic, political, and social processes that encourage or impede landslide mitigation programs. This information could be valuable when landslides are considered in insurance programs and local planning and zoning, including the location of key facilities. Extreme winds: Knowledge about wind-force effects on buildings is critical to developing wind speed provisions in building codes and designing wind-resistant structures.
Research in this area is lacking; measurements of wind speeds at the height of mid- to high-rise buildings are rarely available. The stucco facade of this building shattered like an eggshell as lava flowing around the base of the three-story structure applied such pressure that the walls shifted and collapsed. A national wind hazard reduction program, modeled on the National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program, is needed to improve building performance in high winds and severe weather.
The program should emphasize mitigation. Schools and medical facilities, in particular, should be subject to stringent building codes. High winds can cause substantial property damage and economic loss. Research needs to focus on whether current mitigation practice, including the wind-resistance provisions of building codes, is responsive to the potential magnitude of the problem.
Overcoming resistance to mitigation. Barriers to the adoption of mitigation measures need to be clearly identified and innovative strategies developed to overcome resistance. Success stories, computer models, and simulations should be components of such a program. Real experiences can provide both insight into the factors that contribute to successful mitigation programs and the means for communities to capitalize on opportunities that follow a disaster.
Computer simulations and other tools that incorporate the tax base, revenues, loss estimates, and other key variables can provide government and industry with information critical to their decision-making.