The secular tunes typically had more shape than the sacred tunes; however, it should be noted that Josquin did not go without composing Masses around sacred tunes, which were mostly derived from plainchant. Some of the Josquin's secular tunes are borrowed from chansons, such as N'auray je jamais mieulx. This notion is currently under investigation.
At least thirty-one Mass-settings were based on this melody in the Renaissance period. Among other well known composers to use the tune were Dufay, Ockeghem, Palestrina, and Obrecht. The last Mass to incorporate the tune was a seventeenth century twelve-voice work by Carissimi. In this Mass he transposes to F in the sixth mode from the normal G. This is but one technique borrowed from the former Super voces musicales version. The most obvious difference in the two Masses is the overall wide range of the voices in Sexti toni.
Sexti toni discussed from here on begins with a brief unison in the tenor and bass, followed by open fifths leading to a rich major triad with the statement of the third voice in the Kyrie. Each voice is independent of the barline as in all sections. This is precisely what gives the Mass the floating quality which it so appropriately exudes.
The Gloria begins with a duet between the soprano and tenor.
The soprano leads the sequence, beginning in measure five, soon followed by the tenor, resulting in a canon. The alto and bass enter with their own duet at bar nine. The Gloria is shaped by a cadential hierarchy. The introduction of the first duet is followed by the tutti, ending on a half cadence. The next duet and tutti lead to a full cadence. The second phrase is characterized by the sequence ending on the half cadence.
A sense of climax is achieved in the third phrase with the highest note of the section and a satisfying full V-I cadence. A new section of text starts with each new section of music. The contour of melody indicates text-painting such as a rise in melody at the phrase, "in the highest. I have heard the song played in theatre, at weddings, church, and now for a music assignment. Out of all the renditions of Ave Maria the version by Beyonce Knowles has made this song one of my favorite songs. Now that I have heard Josquins original version I see that Beyonce was nowhere near close to resembling this song.
The most important aspect of the song is the imitation of the soprano voice to alto to tenor then bass and her rendition was more like a solo with a different meaning.
The Josquin Research Project
Through his music Josquin Desprez influenced many composers of his time and he still continues to influence composers of modern times. To some, Desprez is still noted as the greatest composer of Western music and also a leader in Renaissance music. Josquin Desprez brought to the table polyphonic imitations which are still used today in chorus. Free essay samples Essays Josquin Desprez. Josquin Desprez 1 January Musical styles were changing rapidly, in part owing to the movement of musicians between different regions of Europe.
The sinuous musical lines of the Ockeghem generation, the contrapuntal complexity of the Netherlanders, and the homophonic textures of the Italian lauda and secular music began to merge into a unified style; indeed Josquin was to be the leading figure in this musical process, which eventually resulted in the formation of an international musical language, of which the most famous composers included Palestrina and Lassus.
Josquin likely learned his craft in his home region in the North, in France, and then in Italy when he went to Milan and Rome. His early sacred works emulate the contrapuntal complexity and ornamented, melismatic lines of Ockeghem and his contemporaries, but at the same time he was learning his contrapuntal technique he was acquiring an Italianate idiom for his secular music: after all, he was surrounded by Italian popular music in Milan.
By the end of his long creative career, which spanned approximately 50 productive years, he had developed a simplified style in which each voice of a polyphonic composition exhibited free and smooth motion, and close attention was paid to clear setting of text as well as clear alignment of text with musical motifs. While other composers were influential on the development of Josquin's style, especially in the late 15th century, he himself became the most influential composer in Europe, especially after the development of music printing, which was concurrent with the years of his maturity and peak output.
This event made his influence even more decisive than it might otherwise have been. Many "modern" musical compositional practices were being born in the era around Josquin made extensive use of "motivic cells" in his compositions, short, easily recognizable melodic fragments which passed from voice to voice in a contrapuntal texture, giving it an inner unity. This is a basic organizational principle in music which has been practiced continuously from approximately until the present day. Josquin wrote in all of the important forms current at the time, including masses, motets, chansons, and frottole.
He even contributed to the development of a new form, the motet-chanson , of which he left at least three examples. In addition, some of his pieces were probably intended for instrumental performance.
Bon jour, bon mois et bonne estrenne
Each area of his output can be further subdivided by form or by hypothetical period of composition. Since dating Josquin's compositions is particularly problematic, with scholarly consensus only achieved on a minority of works, discussion here is by type. Josquin wrote towards the end of the period in which the mass was the predominant form of sacred composition in Europe.
The mass, as it had developed through the 15th century, was a long, multi-section form, with opportunities for large-scale structure and organization not possible in the other forms such as the motet.
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Josquin wrote some of the most famous examples of the genre, most using some kind of cyclic organization. He wrote masses using the following general techniques, although there is considerable overlap between techniques in individual compositions:. Most of these techniques, particularly paraphrase and parody, became standardized during the first half of the 16th century; Josquin was very much a pioneer, and what was perceived by later observers as the mixing of these techniques was actually the process by which they were created.
Prior to Josquin's mature period, the most common technique for writing masses was the cantus firmus, a technique which had been in use already for most of the 15th century. It was the technique that Josquin used earliest in his career, with the Missa L'ami Baudichon , possibly his first mass.source url
Mille regretz josquin des prez analysis essay
That basing a mass on such a source was an accepted procedure is evident from the existence of the mass in Sistine Chapel part-books copied during the papacy of Julius II to It was by far the most famous of all his masses. The paraphrase technique differs from the cantus-firmus technique in that the source material, though it still consists of a monophonic original, is embellished, often with ornaments.
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As in the cantus-firmus technique, the source tune may appear in many voices of the mass. Several of Josquin's masses feature the paraphrase technique, and they include some of his most famous work including the great Missa Gaudeamus. The relatively early Missa Ave maris stella , which probably dates from his years in the Sistine Chapel choir, paraphrases the Marian antiphon of the same name ; it is also one of his shortest masses.
By far the most famous of Josquin's masses using the technique, and one of the most famous mass settings of the entire era, was the Missa pange lingua , based on the hymn by Thomas Aquinas for the Vespers of Corpus Christi. It was probably the last mass that Josquin composed.
One of the high points of the mass is the et incarnatus est section of the Credo, where the texture becomes homophonic, and the tune appears in the topmost voice; here the portion which would normally set "Sing, O my tongue, of the mystery of the divine body" is instead given the words "And he became incarnate by the Holy Ghost from the Virgin Mary, and was made man. In parody masses, the source material was not a single line, but an entire texture, often of a popular song.
Several works by Josquin fall loosely into this category, including the Missa Fortuna desperata , based on the three-voice song Fortuna desperata possibly by Antoine Busnois ; the Missa Malheur me bat based on a chanson variously ascribed to Obrecht , Ockeghem , or, most likely, Abertijne Malcourt ;  and the Missa Mater Patris , based on a three-voice motet by Antoine Brumel.
The Missa Mater Patris is probably the first true parody mass to be composed, for it no longer contains any hint of a cantus firmus. The earliest known mass by any composer using this method of composition—the soggetto cavato —is the Missa Hercules Dux Ferrariae , which Josquin probably wrote in the early s for the powerful Ercole I , Duke of Ferrara. The notes of the cantus firmus are drawn from the musical syllables of the Duke's name in the following way: Ercole, Duke of Ferrara in Latin is H e rc u l e s D u x F e rr a r ie.
Another mass using this technique is the Missa La sol fa re mi , based on the musical syllables contained in "Lascia fare mi" "let me do it". The story, as told by Glareanus in , was that an unknown aristocrat used to order suitors away with this phrase, and Josquin immediately wrote an "exceedingly elegant" mass on it as a jab at him. Canonic masses came into increasing prominence in the latter part of the 15th century. Josquin's motet style varied from almost strictly homophonic settings with block chords and syllabic text declamation to highly ornate contrapuntal fantasias, to the psalm settings which combined these extremes with the addition of rhetorical figures and text-painting that foreshadowed the later development of the madrigal.
He wrote many of his motets for four voices, an ensemble size which had become the compositional norm around , and he was also a considerable innovator in writing motets for five and six voices. Almost all of Josquin's motets use some kind of compositional constraint on the process; they are not freely composed.